Biological Medicine and the Systems of Regulation

Dr. Robert Frost

This article is from Dr. Frost's book: Applied Kinesiology, A Training Manual and Reference Book of Basic Principles and Practices

Abstract: Research in biological medicine has revealed that the functioning of the body is controlled less by the genes and more directly by the “ground system of regulation”. The “ground substance” of this system is in the liquid crystal structures of connective tissue located between the cells throughout the body. It is this ground substance which determines what enters and exits every cell. The ground substance forms a complex system of chemical and electrical communication throughout the body, independent of the nerves. Through the ground substance, whatever occurs anywhere in the body has a nearly immediate effect throughout the body. The meridians of oriental medicine appear to be located and transmit signals along functionally connected chains of connective tissue of the ground substance. The 14 major meridians, which AK uses to order all the structures and functions of the body, may be meaningfully described as the 14 “systems of regulation” of the body. It is becoming evident that the process of improving health is identical with improving the functioning of the ground substance. The genial and simple techniques of AK make it possible to directly determine the optimal individual treatment for improving the ground substance. This are rapidly making it the tool of choice for diagnosis and for determining the proper individual treatment in biological medicine today.

This section is for the advanced student who desires to better understand the biochemical and electrical aspects of health and disease. Obviously only a most superficial view is possible given the small amount of space that can be devoted here to this huge field. By giving an overview of this fascinating world of knowledge I hope to inspire my readers to inquire further on their own. Because so much of the new knowledge has been recently gathered, I urge you to read only the newest standard textbooks of anatomy, physiology, neurology and functional histology. For the advanced student with a good understanding of the German language, I can highly recommend the best single textbook I have found on this topic: Hartmut Heine’s, Lehrbuch der biologischen Medizin.

Modern medicine is in a time of great upheaval. The paradigms that were useful in solving the problem of infectious diseases in the past do not provide adequate solutions for the many chronic and degenerative diseases prevalent today. It appears that a new way of thinking, a new way of looking at health and disease is required. The modern scientific concepts of quantum mechanics and chaos theory provide the needed new viewpoint. Although these new theories have been demonstrated to more accurately represent reality than the worldviews of the past, in the field of medicine as in other areas of society, there is resistance to accepting and applying new ideas.

However, a diverse group of medical doctors, researchers and biologists has embraced these new concepts and is using them to develop a new medical viewpoint. With this new medical “Weltanschauung,” they have already had ground-breaking success in providing new understandings and solutions to many of the medical problems of today. “Biological medicine” is the generic term used to describe this new conceptual field. Unlike classical medicine, biological medicine no longer follows the Newtonian “cause and effect” way of thinking. Classical medicine seeks single causes of illness and fights them. By contrast, the doctor using biological medicine draws together and analyzes all the possible factors that could be causing the health problem and attempts to positively influence them. Alternative medicine can thus be seen as an aspect of biological medicine. The therapy methods of biological medicine can be classified as follows (after Heine, 1997):

Phytotherapy (therapy using plant products)
Traditional Chinese medicine

Therapy with the goal of specifically affecting the system of ground regulation (Pischinger)
1. Acupuncture
2. Neural therapy
3. Bioresonance

Therapy to stimulate the system of ground regulation in a general way
1. Nutrition
2. Kneipp techniques (external application of water)
3. Anthroposophic medicine
4. Alternating activity and rest with the goal of strengthening the powers of recuperation
5. Music and art therapy
6. Psychotherapy; therapy that uses talking as the medium in general

Detoxification and elimination techniques
1. Purging and vomiting
2. Bloodletting
3. Sweating methods (exercise, sauna, etc.)
4. Stimulation/irritation of the skin
5. Diuretic (water-removing) interventions

The techniques of classical medicine (surgery, chemotherapy, pharmacology, the use of artificial organs, hormone and other biochemical substitution) seek to fight the apparent, superficial cause of illness. With such methods, the body has a more or less passive role. When treatment is effective, the body is said to have been “freed” from the illness. All these methods are oriented toward illness.

By contrast, the therapy procedures of biological medicine give the body an active role—for example, in eliminating toxins. They help support and stimulate the self-healing processes. Special attention is given to the re-establishment of the natural biological processes (sleep and waking rhythm, body temperature, digestion, etc.). These methods strengthen the powers of recuperation and the resistance to illness. Biological medicine is oriented toward promoting and maintaining health.

In this new medical discipline of “biological medicine,” attention is given in both diagnosis and treatment to almost every factor that may make an individual ill.

Modern medicine conceives the gene to be one of the controllers, or the direct controller of biological functioning. The contrary view of biological medicine is that:
1) the gene is the repository of blueprints of instructions on how cells and higher systems should operate, not a direct activator, and
2) the actual regulation of biological activities in cells and all higher levels of organization lies in a so-called “system of ground regulation.”

The tissues of higher life forms are built of three basic structures; the capillary, the ground substance or matrix, and the cell. The basic structure of the system of ground regulation is the ground substance. The ground substance is a complex connective tissue that lies between all the cells of the body. It consists of two groups of components, the amorphous ground substance and the structural ground substance. The amorphous ground substance is a transparent, half-fluid gel produced and sustained by the fibroblast cells of the connective tissues. It consists of highly polymerized sugar-protein complexes. One of its main families of components is the glycosaminoglycanes. Glycosaminoglycanes are bound to proteins in the tissues, forming huge chains (polymers) with a molecular weight of several million. They do not bend around into a circle like most other proteins but rather lie flat and take up lots more room than other molecules of the same molecular weight. On their flat sides they bind large amounts of water and positively charged ions (especially sodium), which assists the amorphous ground substance to become viscous and gives the structural ground substance turgor (fluid pressure) or even hardness. They twist together and partially form the permeability barrier around cells.

The structural strength of the ground substance is also provided by various kinds of fibers. The structural ground substance consists mainly of bendable reticulin fibers that can mature into inelastic collagen, stretchable elastin fibers, and the recently discovered structural glycoproteins fibronectin and laminin that are a part of cell surface membranes. The components of the structural ground substance form other types of connective tissues such as those of fascia, tendons, ligaments and cartilage as well as fat tissues, veins, arteries, lymphatic vessels, bones and teeth. These other types of connective tissues are durable, strong and long-lasting. They represent a kind of “long-term memory” of the ground substance.

The smallest structural element of the ground substance is the matrisome, which has a polygon network structure formed of various glycoproteins and transitorily bound proteins. The matrisome structure is arranged in many self-repetitive layers. Each layer is slightly rotated the same amount with respect to the next layer. We will return to the matrisome again later in this section.

The ground substance surrounds and interconnects the cells. It acts as a molecular sieve, determining what chemicals enter and exit the cells. The maintenance of homeostasis in the cells requires that the ground substance reacts swiftly and precisely to complex changes. This is made possible by the diversity of molecular structures of the sugar polymers of the ground substance, the ability to swiftly generate new such substances, and their high interconnectedness. This creates a redundance that makes possible the controlled oscillation of values above and below the dynamic homeostasis present in all living creatures. This is a kind of fast-responding, “short term memory” of the ground substance. Without this capacity, the system would quickly move to an energetic equilibrium, which would bring inactivity and death.

The ground substance contains a network of fibrous and non-fibrous connective tissue paths through which interactive information can flow. Such information flows into the ground substance as chemical, electrical and electromagnetic signals from blood, lymph, nerves, glands, etc., plus formatted information on proper “how to’s” from the genes into the ground substance; then from the ground substance to the cells defining “what” to do. This interchange of information over the interactive network of the ground substance determines the reactions to internal and environmental influences. These stereotyped responses form the ever-repeating and yet ever-individual patterns of metabolism, development, growth, repair and behavior, etc.

Only about 2% of all illnesses are produced by the functioning or malfunctioning of a single genetic element. Biological medicine contends that most of the other diseases are produced by a combination of factors that interfere with the processes of the system of ground regulation. The system of ground regulation controls the relationship between cells and their environment—how energy and matter are exchanged in the thermodynamics of open energy systems of the human body. A knowledge of this system allows doctors to recognize malfunctions in tissues early so that corrective measures may be taken before disease develops. Thus the biological medicine approach provides for true preventative health care.

The function and composition of the ground substance can change swiftly under the various influences of the nervous and immune systems plus a wide variety of chemical influences including hormones, neuropeptides, enzymes, growth factors and cytokines.

The end of the motor nerves of the vegetative nervous system project out from their insulating myelin sheaths into the ground substance. They do not form synapses or enter the cells that they influence but rather end naked in the ground substance. Their signals are carried up to 2000 nm through the ground substance along fine collagen fibers to the basal membrane of the connective tissue or organ cells. Thus the nervous control of cells does not occur through synapses but through the chemical medium of the ground substance. Not only electric signals emerge from the end of nerves. Chemicals (neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and cytokines) are also released. These bind to receptors on the connective tissue and organ cells and cause the cells to release short-lived chemicals (cytokines) that have a reciprocal influence upon the cells themselves, upon nearby cells, and upon distant cells via the circulatory system. Fine hollow tubes within the cells carry the chemical signals into and out of the cells, providing for fast communication and reciprocal reaction. The chemicals that are released by nerve endings are also involved in the process of inflammation.

Inflammation is a basic reaction of the tissues of the body against various damaging stimuli. These may be mechanical (friction, pressure, foreign bodies), chemical (acids, bases, toxins), physical (temperature, radiation), damaging internal processes (uremia, tissues destroyed by tumors, or microorganisms (bacteria, virus, yeast, parasites). Thus inflammation is the basic reaction of the body in all diseases. Inflammation of a tissue indicates that the body is fighting against a disturbing factor, substance, stimulus, process or infecting agent.

Mast cells control the process of inflammation. Mast cells can move like amoebae and many of them gather near the end of nerves of the autonomic nervous system. These nerves are concentrated on the basal membranes of capillaries so the mast cells are concentrated here as well. Within mast cells is a great variety of preformed biologically active chemicals. Sometimes mast cells selectively release chemicals. Under the influence of progesterone they release serotonin. Under the influence of estrogen they release histamines. When the mast cells degranulate their various chemicals are released. These react with other chemicals such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes and become extremely biologically active in the ground substance. It is mainly through degranulation, releasing their stored chemicals, that the mast cells direct the complete process of inflammation. They are rightly called one-celled endocrine glands and “the guards of the ground substance.”

There is much reciprocal effect between nervous signals coming into the ground substance and structural constitution of the ground substance itself. This plays an important role in development, growth, the healing of injuries, and also in pathological processes such as inflammation and the formation of tumors. The autonomic terminal axons (nerve endings) and the mast cells of the ground substance influence each other directly. Any sort of shock causes the nerve endings to release catecholamines (adrenaline or epinephrine, noradrenaline, dopamine). These chemicals are needed to produce the central effect of inflammation—the degranulation of the mast cells. In the case of an allergic reaction or a septic condition in the tissues, the mast cells degranulate directly, which then causes the nerve endings to release catecholamines.

The capacity of the ground substance to become inflamed is dependent upon the intactness of the sensory innervation of the tissues. The signals from nerve endings travel toward the central nervous system. Along other branches of the same nerve some of these signals return to the cell from which they originated (the axon reflex). When the signals return, they cause the ends of these sensory nerves to release active chemicals including pain neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). These cause the mast cells to degranulate and cause the macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils to go into attack mode and digest the infecting agents, substances, or tissue remnants. In the process enzymes, oxygen radicals and many mediating chemicals are released that promote the transformation of the composition and structure of the ground substance. SP also promotes the proliferation of T lymphocytes, the differentiation of the B lymphocytes and an increased production of immunoglobulins. Thus inflammation is partially controlled on a local scale in and near the affected tissues themselves.

Sensory signals from the ground substance also have the task of signaling the central nervous system to stimulate the release of adrenaline, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, cytokines, neuropeptides, etc. Furthermore, sensory nerves also act as receptors of immune-related chemicals. These toxins, antigens and antibodies are transported along the sensory axons to the central nervous system, evidently for processing there. This has an effect upon the central nervous system and the peripheral release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.

While struggling with this extremely complicated information, my partner suggested that the axon reflex and the transmission of immune-related substances, through sensory nerves to the nervous system for processing there, may be one of the reasons that people feel better and get well faster when lovingly stroked. Sometimes all this complex scientific nomenclature and information needs to be so translated into more human terms!

The system of ground regulation has four main systems of communication. One is chemical, as in the many processes described above. The others are electrical impulses through the nerves, electrochemical synapses (found between fibroblasts and between functional organ cells helping them to act together), and electromagnetic vibrations. Thus the wide variety and vast quantity of internal and external information is coded and exchanged in only these four ways. This simplification is necessary for the creation and maintenance of living systems. However, this also presents the danger of false transmission of information through genetic or environmental influences. And poor nutrition or environmental pollution can change the chemistry of the ground substance so that incoming signals are incorrectly processed. All this indicates that the genetic and environmental factors cannot be considered separately or simply additively. They are inseparably networked together in the ground substance.

No other system unites the huge amount of genetic, biochemical and environmental information like biological medicine with its basic foundation in the system of ground regulation. In this system, the individual is not only seen to be a product of his genetic composition, but rather is considered in the rich network of functional relationships of his DNA and the complete environment around it, including the mechanisms of the cell, the ground substance, the circulatory system, and the totality of the mental, emotional and physical environment in which he lives.

For its biochemical survival, every organism requires the ability to rapidly construct, destroy and reconstruct the constituents of the ground substance. The ground substance itself has a polygonal net structure. The smallest unit of the ground substance is called the matrisome. The matrisome structure is oriented in a self-repetitive (redundant) manner through many anatomical layers of organization throughout the ground substance. No matrisome is identical to another but all have the same pattern of organization. A dividing plane through any matrisome yields a polygon. The matrisome may be imagined as a series of identical line drawings placed one over the other, with each one a bit more rotated and further away than the last (see the diagram). This creates the appearance of hyperboloid spiraling tunnels through the many layers (Heine, 1997, p. 52).

Diagram of a Matrisome

Between the molecules that make up the ground substance there are minimal surfaces. The formation of soap bubbles provides a well-known example of the formation of minimal surfaces. Their spherical shape arises because it is the smallest possible surface that contains the volume of air that the soap bubble encompasses. When one dips a bent clothes hanger or other metal wire into a solution of soap, the so-formed soap membrane has a surface that describes the minimal surface connecting every point on the ring.

Between the molecules of the ground substance there are not only minimal physical surfaces like in a soap bubble but also minimal electrical surfaces. These surfaces are not minimal in size but rather in potential energy. Minimal electrical surfaces have a negative gaussian curvature like a saddle or folds in a skirt (Schnering, 1991).

The electrical charging and discharging of the materials of the ground substance cause electromagnetic field oscillations (photon fields). The interference of these fields creates short lived (from 10-9 to up to 10-5 seconds) tunnels through the ground substance (Popp, 1987). Through these tunnels, shaped like the hole through a donut, large chemicals may traverse from capillaries through the ground substance and into the functional cells of organs and back again. All metabolic processes depend upon this transport mechanism.

The self-repetitive structure of the ground substance identifies it as a system of determined chaos. The cyclic appearance and disappearance of the tunnels through the matrisomes identifies them as attractors (Heine, 1997, p. 27). The spontaneous appearance of order in chaos and chaos in order is well known in chaos theory. The mathematics of minimal surfaces shows that tiny changes in one area can cause large changes in distant areas of the same (ground) substance. Coupling and resonance are qualities that always appear in the non-linear systems of determined chaos. Under the conditions of minimal surfaces as found in the ground substance, the energy of one single photon can cause extensive effects throughout the ground substance (Heine, 1997, p. 55). This is the likely explanation of the phenomena of homeopathy, acupuncture and bioresonance, in which the application of tiny stimuli may produce system wide changes.

In order for a nerve to fire, a stimulus of about 60 millivolts must be applied. Pressure upon nerve receptors can create adequate voltage to fire the nerve cells. However, holding a homeopathic remedy or a gemstone near the body cannot logically cause the nerves to directly fire. And yet, AK muscle testing reveals that the body does selectively respond to such remedies, even through glass bottles. How is this possible? The ground substance requires only a shift of one electron to set up a process that can cause a nerve to fire. Apparently, holding some “energized” remedy near the body can be somehow registered in the extremely sensitive ground substance, which then evokes far-reaching responses throughout the body.

Many authors contend that remedies, gemstones, etc., have an electromagnetic field that affects the human body. Fritz A. Popp, a world authority on subtle biological energies, has another idea. In private conversations with the author, he agreed that there is no measurable electromagnetic field around such substances that could have an effect upon the body. He suggested that the effect might be due to some kind of “echo” phenomenon similar to sonar (for example, how a bat sends out auditory signals and maneuvers his flight according to the sound waves bouncing back). The human body produces various electromagnetic fields. Perhaps these pass through the remedy held in the hand and return to the body changed. This returning electromagnetic field may carry information specific to the remedy. This may cause changes in the ground substance that resonate through the body and brings about the changes revealed by muscle testing. But this theory can only be true if humans can be shown to have magnetic field receptors as yet unknown to science.

Many animals are capable of detecting the magnetic field of the earth and use it for orienting themselves. Birds migrate accurately using the magnetic field of the earth, even when cloudy weather prevents them from visually orienting themselves. In one experiment, humans were blindfolded, rotated so as to lose orientation, driven many miles from their original location, and then asked to point in the direction of the location where they were blindfolded. In the countryside, most people were able to do this fairly accurately. But when this experiment was repeated in a city, where trains, trams, electric wires, radios, etc., often produce fields far stronger than that of the earth, people were unable to orient themselves toward the point of origin. The ambient electromagnetic fields present in modern industrial life appear to disorient our electromagnetic receptors.

The eyes are electromagnetic receptors that respond to a small spectrum of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. With the exception of the eyes, scientists haven’t yet discovered human electromagnetic field receptors and their neurophysiology. However, the above-described experiment indicates that we likely do have them. If so, then the following hypothesis could describe the modus operandi of many hitherto unexplained phenomena observed and applied by therapists who use AK:
1. The human hand has a small magnetic field.
2. All magnetic fields are circular, returning toward their source.
3. When a substance is held in the hand, the hand’s own magnetic field passes through the substance.
4. The hand’s magnetic field is altered by passing through the substance.
5. The altered field returns to the hand and is detected by the postulated electromagnetic field nerve sensors.
6. These nerve sensors fire in response to the received field.
7. The ground substance is affected by the received signal, either directly or through the secondary firing of nerves.
8. The whole body is affected by nervous system signaling and by the transmission of information through the system of ground regulation.
9. Thus the tiny stimulus of a substance held in the hand may have system-wide effects.

All the systems of the body are interconnected into a functional network. Like many pendula linked by springs, the various systems of the body have an energy coherence; they vibrate together. This creates and is an expression of order or health in the system. All chemical reactions create small electromagnetic energies. But major ordering energy structures in the body are created by the ground substance. One of these is collagen. The chains of collagen in the ground substance are not only able to conduct energy, they also generate energy themselves. Collagen has piezoelectric properties. Like quartz crystal, collagen in the ground substance and the more stable connective tissues (fascia, tendons, bones, etc.). transforms mechanical energy (pressure, torsion, stretch) into electromagnetic energy, which then resonates through the ground substance (Athenstaedt, 1974). However, if the ground substance is chemically imbalanced, the energy resonating through the body loses coherence. For example, repeatedly feeding the body highly oxidative white flour or white sugar can cause such loss of coherence of energies with disastrous consequences for the body.

Any stressor (disease to a specific organ, trauma, focus) causes changes in the system of ground regulation in the local area. If this stress continues, other systems are affected until the system of ground regulation for the whole body becomes involved. This is what occurs in the adaptation response described by Hans Selye. In this condition, the body is then liable to break down under any new stress. For example, the extra stress caused by a chill may result in an attack of rheumatism. When the system of ground regulation is stressed and out of balance, the probability of the occurrence of chronic illness also increases.

Pischinger originated the concept of the system of ground regulation. He found that one main block to the function of the system of ground regulation is infection. The popular medical terminology is “focus of infection.” The typical areas of focal infection include the tonsils, teeth, appendix and gall bladder. Further experimentation by Pischinger revealed that foci that block the function of the system of ground regulation include areas that have no infection such as scars and dead teeth. Such a tooth can be rotted out but upon examination is found to no longer contain any active infection. For this reason, already in the 1960s, Pischinger gave up the term “focus of infection” and replaced it with the term “focus.” The treatment of scars with laser, neural therapy or various creams (Bach Rescue Cream®, APM Creme®, Ionen Salbe Forte®, etc.) may remove the disturbances that scars may produce. Dead teeth may be “provoked” with an osteitis nosode. If a long-term or extreme inflammation around the tooth results, it is advisable to have the tooth pulled. If the reaction heals quickly, the body can clear up the focus and the tooth may be able to stay without negatively influencing the health.

Since foci interfere with the system of ground regulation and thus with the health of an organism, removing foci is of utmost importance in the healing process. This may involve surgically removing dead teeth or an organ, or removing pathogenic agents and fetid matter from an organ such as the large intestine in order to restore it to normal function.

Organisms are energetically open, highly networked systems. Open systems are generally capable of rhythmic oscillation. Biorhythms are an example of such rhythms (Heine, 1997, pp. 18-20). Open systems require a regular input of energy in a form that they can utilize and which can dissipate throughout the system (food). They are feedback-coupled, which defines them as non-linear. Because of this they are capable of self-organization. That means that although they seem to be without fixed rules and no accurate long-term prognosis can be made, they do have an ordered structure (determined chaos). This order is characterized by coherence, meaning that they, like a laser, contain phase and frequency-identical bundles of energy.

The order within an organism is maintained by a coherence of electromagnetic field oscillations. These arise from reactions within the body and from electromagnetic fields in the environment. The most important fields within the body are created by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric qualities of collagen located in the ground substance and in all connective tissues. There are many levels of electromagnetic fields within the body. Atoms at body temperature vibrate at more than 1015 Hz. Molecules (groups of atoms) vibrate at about 109 Hz. Cells (groups of molecules) vibrate near 103 Hz. The human organism as a whole vibrates with a frequency between 7 and 10 Hz. Thus the community of cells and ground substance also vibrates at 7-10 Hz.

These frequencies are found in nature as well. The atmosphere between the surface of the earth and the ionosphere forms a resonant body with a resonant frequency from 8-10 Hz (Schumann, 1954). This means that all electrical discharges around the earth are damped except for those of 8-10 Hz (the main Schumann frequency), which can resonate freely and extend around the earth (Bergsman, 1994). We live within this constant, vibrating field. This rate of vibration can be detected upon the surface of the brain and especially in the hippocampus, an ancient brain structure in vertebrate animals that uses smell and visual input to direct behavior. In the hippocampus the decision is made as to whether a situation is of emotional importance or not. In mammals and especially in humans, the hippocampus is connected to the limbic system (including the hypothalamus) that controls the emotional reactions and the function of memory. As the hypothalamus is the main director of the autonomic nervous system and directs the functions of the master gland, the pituitary, anything that affects its function has far-reaching effects upon health and behavior.

It is highly possible that the human body as a whole, and the hippocampus
specifically, vibrate at this rate because of having evolved within the Schumann waves upon the surface of the earth. In this way at least, we are in resonant harmony with our environment. However, in industrial countries, humans are subjected to powerful electromagnetic fields of similar frequency. For example, the alternating-current electricity that powers trains in Europe has a frequency of 15 Hz. It is likely that these external electromagnetic fields have a negative effect upon brain and other bodily functions. We are the first few generations to be subjected to such human-generated fields. It may take a number of generations before we become aware of the consequences that such fields produce upon human structure and functioning.

The hypothalamus directly and indirectly controls the release of neurotransmitters and related chemicals called neuropeptides. The hypothalamus is the area of the brain where emotions are generated. Via the hypothalamus, emotional states cause the release of a great variety of neuropeptides including adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, endorphin, insulin and glutamine. These directly affect the ground substance and thereby the health of the whole body. Specific neuropeptides are generated in the brain and travel through the nerves to target organs. Some of these are disease-preventing. Others promote disease in the target organ. It seems likely that this is one of the ways that emotional states affect health.

Research by Heine indicates that unresolved emotional traumas cause the release of the neurotransmitter substance P from nerve endings in the junction of muscles and tendons. This causes the collagen to take on a hexagonal structure, which he has observed under the electron microscope. This hexagonal form of collagen is far more ordered than the forms collagen normally has in the body. And as we have discussed, too much (or too little) structure means death. This form of collagen is present in the exact areas of the pain produced by fibromyalgia. Heine refers to this overly-structured collagen as an “emotional scar.” (Heine, 1990, pp. 127-159). His breakthrough research provides an important scientific verification that diseases can have psychological causes.

Many electromagnetic fields originate within the body. All chemical reactions generate electromagnetic fields. Some of the most important electromagnetic fields are generated in the ground substance and in the related connective tissues. Collagen fibers are piezoelectric and pyroelectric. This means that stretched or warmed, they produce an electrical potential. The collagen fibers and the sugar-protein complexes that are attached to them bind water and electrically charged metal ions in the ground substance. Together they function as bio-sensors that signal electrically the smallest changes that occur within the organism. Collagen fibers are diodes; they allow electrons to pass through them in only one direction. Collagen fibers in the ground substance are arranged so that some of them allow energy to move toward the cells (afferent) and others provide an electrical path away from the cells (efferent). So defined, the afferent paths of collagen fibers bring the coherent electromagnetic energy from the neuronal net of the ground substance into the cells. The efferent paths send energy out of the cells into the ground substance.

The bio-sensor network in the ground substance is quite different from other typical electric circuits characterized by a classical cause-effect and yes-no logic. A normal network will fail when any of its components fails. Until measured values reach a defined critical level, no correction occurs. The biosensor network functions in quite a different manner, one that can be best described by a concept from quantum physics termed "fuzzy logic" (Heine, 1997, p. 143). Fuzzy logic is used in modern video cameras to produce a stable picture. This is effectively a kind of “camera homeostasis” that maintains a steady picture even when the camera is held unsteadily. Working on a “when-then” rule, fuzzy logic networks are very robust. Many parts can fail but the function itself, though reduced in intensity, does not suddenly fail. Such systems only step-wise lose their capacity to function. Thus, even under duress, the bio-sensor network allows the ground substance to continually make small “when-then” type adjustments to maintain bodily homeostasis. When such a system has suffered partial debilitation, internal repair mechanisms or external therapy can usually return it to full function.

The biosensors are set to recognize patterns, not absolute values. This provides a good example for comparing the parallel differences between Newtonian and quantum mechanics on one hand and between classical and biological medicine on the other hand. Classical medicine looks for absolute values. If you complain of discomfort, one of mainstream or “school” medicine's major tools is laboratory analysis of the current condition of your blood. If your blood sugar, for example, is found to be above a specific level, that constitutes a specific problem. School medicine characteristically then prescribes a specific chemical to offset this rise. Thus it tends to treat the symptom, often without seriously looking for an underlying cause and only very rarely looking for possible multiple causes.

By contrast, biological medicine looks for connections among the patterns in behavior, structure and functioning. Health is considered to depend upon the continual monitoring and correcting of the intake of nutrients and water, exercise, electromagnetic fields, the social situation and all the various inner and outer factors that have an effect upon the ground substance. By testing for all likely causative factors, often with the techniques of Applied Kinesiology, the biological medicine practitioner develops a much broader picture of what is amiss throughout the patient’s entire system. He or she is then in a position to treat causes rather than symptoms. The practitioner is able not only to effect immediate corrective measures, but also to instruct a patient that with the concepts of biological medicine, every day one has the chance to make choices that improve the quality of the ground substance and thereby one’s overall health.

The combination of collagen fibers and sugar-protein complexes produces its highest piezoelectric energy values at 37° C, the temperature of the human body. And the liquid crystal molecular structure of water is highly ordered with minimum energy also at 37°. This combination allows signaling to traverse the watery medium of the ground substance of the human body easily and with practically no energy loss and no consequent warming (Heine, 1997, p. 142). Thus a disturbance anywhere in the body is registered almost immediately everywhere within the body.

This transfer of energy through the ground substance allows information transfer throughout the body. Without it life would cease! In addition, for life to be possible, there needs to be a difference of temperature between the cell and the intercellular spaces occupied by the ground substance. In fact, the cells must be warmer than the ground substance. When the difference is small, metabolic processes take longer to occur. When the difference is zero, metabolic processes don't occur at all, which means death. Since all life processes occur through the ground substance, it is important that the energy- and heat-producing chemical processes of the ground substance require less energy than those of the cell.

The functions of the ground substance form a system of regulation for the whole body. This system of ground regulation contains various levels of subsystems that, while relatively independent, have an effect upon and are affected by the whole system and all of its parts. This fractal repetition of patterns of function on many levels is typical of all non-linear systems of determined chaos, as discussed earlier in this chapter.

Acupuncture points have a functional connection with the system of ground regulation. The concept of the acupuncture "point" once hindered research greatly. G. Kellner, under the direction of Pischinger at the University of Vienna, searched for special nerve endings in the skin that might be the physical aspects of acupuncture points. He came to the conclusion that there is no definite physical structure corresponding to acupuncture points (Kellner, 1979).

However, in the Mandarin Chinese language, the word translated as "point" (Xue-Wei) actually means "hole". Applying this literal translation has proved to be more fruitful in defining acupuncture points. Indeed, 82% of the 361 classical acupuncture points have been found to be located over perforations of the superficial body fascia. The smallest (e.g. Lung 8) are about 2 mm in diameter. The largest (e.g. Bladder 52) are about 8 mm. Most the remaining 18% are over other kinds of perforations through bones and dura mater or in other well-marked anatomical areas. In all cases, the acupuncture points consist of a small bundle of nerves and blood vessels wrapped in a loose coating of connective tissue that penetrates other tissues to reach near the surface of the skin (Heine, 1997, pp. 179-186; Zerlauth, 1992).

Both the water and chemical contents of this bundle of blood vessels and nerves are electrically conductive. In comparison, fascia tissues are electrically resistant. For this reason, acupuncture points have a greater conductivity than other points on the skin. Small devices for measuring electric conductivity are popular for locating the exact position of acupuncture points. As we shall see, groups of acupuncture points (meridians) are associated with the function of particular organs and operations in the body and therefore may be meaningfully assigned to particular systems of regulation. When the system of regulation associated with the particular acupuncture point is out of balance, the electrical conductivity of the point will change measurably and the point may become painful to the touch ("trigger points"). Proper stimulation of such "active" points may have profound therapeutic effects upon the system of regulation. Thus the acupuncture points are a window for detecting and affecting the functioning of the systems of regulation (Bergsman, 1990).

In traditional Chinese medicine, the acupuncture points are connected by lines that we in the West refer to as meridians. The acupuncture points of a meridian lie along muscles and tendons that are connected with each other. These muscle groups work together in producing specific bodily movements. Therefore the muscles and related connective tissues (fascia and tendons) upon which the meridians are located are referred to functionally as kinetic chains. This has been demonstrated by Bergsmann and Bergsmann (1988) and further developed by Stecco (1996) in electro-myographic studies. These authors showed that during simple motions such as straightening the arm, the frequency of muscle contraction potentials along the complete chain of fascia-muscle-tendon increased, even in muscles not involved in the motion. Furthermore, stimulation of "active" acupuncture points may cause pain to appear at areas remote from the points but always along the related chain of muscles and connective tissue.

In neural therapy, painful trigger points are injected with a local anesthetic. This causes a temporary equilibration of energy potential between the nerves and the ground substance in the area, which temporarily inhibits the pain. This can also promote a lasting regeneration of the local ground regulation that eliminates the disturbing symptoms. Simply placing a needle (without injecting any substance) into the point creates a short-circuit between the nerves and the ground substance with similar results. Moreover, the process of healing the tiny wound produced by the needle involves an inflammation; a prolonged, complex, bio-chemical process which produces acontinuing therapeutic stimulation in the area where the needle was placed.

The chains of muscles and connective tissue upon which the acupuncture points are located are the physical carriers of the meridians of oriental medicine. Goodheart's research has correlated the various muscles, glands and other organs of the body and their function into fourteen groups associated with the fourteen major meridians of oriental acupuncture. All AK treatments are aimed at affecting one or more of these fourteen systems.

Based upon the work of Pischinger, it is indicated to define any area of the body that is connected to a specific meridian-organ system as belonging to one (sub-)system of regulation. So defined, it is the work of AK to determine and correct whatever is interfering with the function of these fourteen systems of regulation. By specifically correcting imbalances, the ground substance in these systems is improved in quality and function.

Hauss (1994) determined that there is an "unspecified reaction of the mesenchyme" in the most common diseases of the industrially developed countries. Mesenchyme is the mother of all the connective tissues including the ground substance. Which disease and which organ is affected depend upon genetic factors, the type of stress or injury, and the individual stress factors such as foci, nutrition and disturbing fields of energy.

All the techniques of biological medicine have the same goal: to improve the function of the ground substance. In the multi-dimensional approach of biological medicine, all the various factors that influence the ground substance are considered in the diagnosing and prescribing of corrective measures for any illness. These methods promote the health and optimal functioning of the ground substance through personal attention to the individual and all aspects or his or her life situation.

AK provides an ideal diagnostic method for biological medicine. Individual stresses may cause weakness or hypertonicity in the muscles associated with the affected system of regulation. Sufficient stress of any kind will eventually cause the body to go into an adaptation reaction. This is usually accompanied by general hypertonicity and blocks many functions of the ground substance throughout the body. Much of the primary work in modern AK (at least in the ICAK-D) has the goal of removing the blocks to the function of the system of ground regulation as revealed by muscle testing.

The various causes of disturbance to any of the systems of regulation can be determined by testing the items that make a normotonic or a hypertonic muscle related to that system test weak. For example, if the rectus femoris (which correlates with the small intestine) tests hypertonic, a tiny quantity of candida antigen may be placed upon the tongue. If the hypertonic muscle now tests weak, there is very likely an overgrowth of candida in the small intestine that needs attention. If muscles test hypertonic because of histamine-related allergies, holding a bottle of histidine will likely make the hypertonic muscle test weak. And holding a bottle of histamine in homeopathic dilution D 12 will likely make the hypertonic muscle test normotonic. The various methods of improving the health of a system of regulation can be similarly determined by using a weak-testing muscle from that system and testing what makes it normotonic.

In the example above, the rectus femoris was made weak by placing candida antigen upon the tongue. If the candida antigen remains upon the tongue, the rectus femoris will continue to test weak, making it an excellent indicator for possible anti-candida treatments. The anti-candida substance (lapacho, grapefruit seed oil, Nystatin®, Ampho-Moronal®, etc.) that makes the rectus femoris normotonic is the one that will work best for this particular patient (Gerz, 1996, p. 291). If no weak-testing muscle from that system can be located, therapy localization to the affected organ or bodily area itself may be used to provide a weak-testing indicator muscle related to the chosen system of regulation. These genial and simple techniques are rapidly making AK the tool of choice for diagnosis and for determining the proper individual treatment in biological medicine today.


Bergsmann, O., and R. Bergsmann, Projektionssymptome, Wien, Facultas Universitätsverlag, 1988.

Bergsmann, O., Grundsystem, Regulation und Regulationsstörung in der Praxis der Rehabilitation, in A. Pischinger, Das System der Grundregulation, eighth edition, Heidelberg, Germany, Haug Verlag, 1990, pp. 89-139.

Bergsmann, O., Bioelektrische Phänomene und Regulation in der Komplementärmedizin, Wien, Austria, Facultas Universitätsverlag, 1994.

Gerz, Wolfgang, M.D., Lehrbuch der Applied Kinesiology (AK) in der naturheilkundlichen Praxis, München, AKSE Verlag, 1996.

Hauss, W. H.: Die unspezifische Mesenchymreaktion (UMR.) Das essentielle Erignis der in den Industriestaaten häufigsten Erkrankungen, in: Perfusion 9 (1994), pp. 312-322.

Heine, Hartmut, Lehrbuch der biologischen Medizin, Stuttgart, Hippokrates Verlag, 1991, 1997.

Heine, Hartmut, Neurogene Entzündung als Basis chronischer Schmerzen, New York, Plenum Publishing Company, 1990: pp. 127-159.

Kellner, G., “Wundheilung-Mikrowunde (Nadelstich) – chirurgischer Laser – Laser Regulationstherapie,” in: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur, 22, 1979, pp. 86-95.

Pischinger, A., Das System der Grundregulation. Grundlagen für eine ganzheitsbiologische Theorie der Medizin, Heidelberg, Haug, fourth edition 1975.

Schnering, H.G., “Die Krümmung chemischer Strukturen,” in: Nova acta Leopoldina NF, 65, 1991, pp. 89-103.

Schumann, W.O., “Über die strahlungslosen Eigenschwingungen einer leitenden Kugel, die von einer Luftschicht und einer Ionosphärenhülle umgeben ist,” in: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 7a, 1954, pp. 149-154.

Stecco, L., La manipolazione neuroconnettivale, Roma, Marrapese, 1996.

Zerlauth, B., etc., “Histologie der Akupunkturpunkte,” in: Deutsche Zeitschrift für Akupunktur, 35, 1992, pp. 34-38.

Other Example Chapters:

A Change In World View: From Newtonian Concepts To Quantum Mechanics and Chaos Theory


The Origin-Insertion Technique

Ordering Information (This book is also available in German)